What Are the Ethical Issues in the Field of Healthcare? | unfrivbanneu.ga

 

legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles

There is a vast range of ethical issues in healthcare that may arise in the field of healthcare today. A hospital's ethical committee has the responsibility to make sure that all of its practitioners are aware of the principals of ethical decision making. The Ethical And Legal Issues page contains articles and information from the New England Journal of Medicine. NEJM Group it is important to consider the ethical issues it raises for research. Aug 13,  · Preserving patient privacy and confidentiality in all environments is a main issue in the context of social-media usage in healthcare and research. This review of ethical issues tried to raise the important questions related to an appropriate use of social media in healthcare unfrivbanneu.ga by:


Ethical Issues in Healthcare | Alvernia Online


Social media, web and mobile technologies are increasingly used in healthcare and directly support patient-centered care. Patients benefit from disease self-management tools, contact to others, and closer monitoring.

Researchers study drug efficiency, or recruit patients for clinical studies via these technologies. However, low communication barriers in social-media, limited privacy and security issues lead to problems from an ethical perspective. This paper summarizes the ethical issues to be considered when social media is exploited in healthcare contexts.

Starting from our experiences in social-media research, we collected ethical issues for selected social-media use cases in the context of patient-centered care. Results were enriched by collecting and analyzing relevant literature and were discussed and interpreted by members of the IMIA Social Media Working Group. Most relevant issues in social-media applications are confidence and privacy that need to be carefully preserved.

The patient-physician relationship can suffer from the new information gain on both sides since private information of both healthcare provider and consumer may be accessible through the Internet. Physicians need to ensure they keep the borders between private and professional intact. Beyond, preserving patient anonymity when citing Internet content is crucial for research studies, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles.

Exploiting medical social-media in healthcare applications requires a careful reflection of roles and responsibilities. Availability of data and information can be useful in many settings, but the abuse of data needs to be prevented, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles.

Preserving privacy and confidentiality of online users is a main issue, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles, as well as providing means for patients or Internet users to express concerns on data usage. Due to improved possibilities and means to obtain information about diseases and treatments that go hand-in-hand with the development of social media and Internet technologies, patients are becoming more informed [ 1 ], and they increasingly want to be engaged in their care [ 2 ].

Social media are digital media and technologies that enable users to exchange information and to create media content individually or in community with others. This media is increasingly becoming a tool supporting healthcare processes, gathering and sharing information, bringing people together, and encouraging social networking and communication regarding health topics [ 3 ], and it supports in this way patient empowerment, i.

The phenomenon of social media and its increased importance in the private as well as in the public sector show there are many potentials even in healthcare settings enabling patient-centered care. In particular, individuals suffering from chronic diseases are using social media more and more to communicate with others, exchange information, and human experiences.

Peer-to Peer healthcare is emerging as a source for patient information and support [ 5 ]. Patients, family members, and friends share personal medical information, receive emotional support, or request guidance and advice from healthcare professionals via social-media sites. For researchers, such data provide new opportunities to analyze observational data to confirm results from randomized trials [ 6 ].

Increasingly, social networks are being used to investigate adolescent and young adult behaviors and personality traits [ 7 ], as well as for data collection and education purposes, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles. One application area in this context is the recruitment of patients for clinical trials based on social-media profiles or the exploitation of social-media data for epidemiological studies [ 8 ].

Beyond, physicians may use social networking to crowdsource answers to individual clinical questions. Researchers have found, based on the data posted on Twitter, they can detect and monitor disease activitymost notably disease outbreaks such as cholera and influenza [ 910 ], but more recently, data about issues like headache appearance was collected from tweets [ 11 ].

These examples show patient-centered healthcare, social media, and the Internet are beginning to come together. Patient behavior has notably changed already and will legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles influence healthcare delivery and research. A couple of ethical questions arise when it comes to the use of social media in healthcare settings. What do researchers need to consider when developing monitoring applications for healthcare using social media?

What do health providers have to consider with respect to ethical questions of social-media usage? Ethics is defined as the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation [ 12 ].

Public health ethics deal with the specific moral questions regarding public actions for disease prevention, life elongation, or psychological and physical well-being. This is in contrast to medical ethics which concentrates on the relationship between patients and doctors. The issue of how ethical principles may be applied to online health research is a current challenge for researchers, but also for health professionals and patients alike.

In this paper, we start to explore these questions and topics. The objective of this work is to examine the ethical implications of the aforementioned trends in the state of the art and to provide topics to be further addressed in the future. For this purpose, we selected use cases from our research work and analysis about the use of different social media platforms for health purposes. They include:. We collected and summarized ethical issues related to these use cases from our experiences and conducted a review of the literature both white and grey.

Further, we performed an environmental scan of popular and current applications and services in this area. The results were then discussed and interpreted.

We concentrated on identifying and discussing relevant ethical aspects without writing a systematic review to match with the IMIA Yearbook objectives and structures. We have experienced ethical issues in our work.

There is a group of people who have grown up with the Internet: the youth, or the digital natives, regularly engage with new social-media legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles 13 ], base their personal identities online [ 14 ], and social media is their natural environment.

For this digital native generation, the online social-media represents a space for connection, identity exploration, a space to express ideas, sexual identities, feelings, problems, and also a space where we receive feedback from others [ 16 ], legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles.

For a majority of youth, online social networking sites are legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles first point of call when they want to find information, including health-related matters [ 1718 ]. Thus, social media is a rich environment to recruit youth participants to participate in research.

For example, recruiting participants from Facebook and Twitter is one of the most effective recruitment strategies in youth-related research studies [ 1920 ]. Although using social media to recruit participants for research is positively viewed by the youth [ 21 ], it presents a number of ethical issues that need to be addressed.

Obtaining informed consent from adolescents via social media represents a number of concerns [ 19 ]. Recruited participants over 18 years may provide their consent online, or their written consent, if they are redirected to a study site. But, how may we obtain parental consent from those contacted or interested under 18 years of age via social media [ 19 ]?

In fact, is it ethical for study advertising material to be circulated in social media, targeting at those who are under-aged, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles, and may have not reached the cognitive maturity to decide whether to participate or not? An alternative and arguably more ethical way to recruit very young people would be to target parents rather than children [ 19 ].

However, one needs to remember that policy settings in social media frequently change. When trying to reach youth through social media, whether it is for public health education or for public health monitoring, the same confidentiality and privacy rules that are applicable offline should also apply [ 22 ].

Although social media is a platform that allows a researcher to easily reach their targeted audience, establishing a dialog with them may not be as easy as one perceives. In fact, the majority of them did not use social media to come into contact with others with similar conditions. Some young users may prefer to interact with others anonymously, perhaps because they are struggling with sensitive issues, such as their sexual identities, or chronic diseases [ 1723 ].

On another scale, there are those who readily share very personal information that may be accessible by the broad general public [ 16 ], legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles. Like in the case of children and young people, elderly patients also have rights in the context of social media usage [ 24 ]. To this extent, the Internet and social media may be used as means of dementia and other disease prevention and health promotion [ 29 ] to train the elderly by cognitive exercises and novelty serious web-based games.

The aforementioned training piloting or deployment of the elderly through games and social-media content usually is confronted with the requirement of informed consent. This is highly associated with the certainty the affected party clearly understands what they are consenting to.

Numerous studies have shown that whilst e. Thus, future projects or systems could follow contemporary approaches to verify consent is both informed and relevant. This may be facilitated by suitable tutorial sessions and workshops on consent decisions and ensuring safe consent record keeping and processing. Switching into a slightly different but still related theme, recent developments witness the use of the Internet and social-media content for training the elderly care giver s formal or informal [ 28 ].

In this direction, one of the relatively unexplored issues is content curation ethics, with only a few recent attempts at establishing best practice guidelines available [ 34 ]. A last issue in supporting web training of care givers with social-media content is concerned with the ethical dilemma between certification and accreditation [ 35 ]. However, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles, the latter may be more effective in job hunting prospects.

Using Internet certificates and Internet badges to demonstrate non-accredited training reflects a growing global trend which might be a suitable ethical resolution to this problem until care givers reach any formal assessment points having consumed enough social-media content. We already considered ethical issues related to social-media usage and research involving the elderly and the youth.

In this section, we will look at the implications of social-media usage in traditional care settings, which involves patient-physician communication, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles. Patient-physician communication in the traditional sense comprises the direct contact and questioning of the patient by the physician, and the discussion of treatment options. Information on diseases, therapies, and legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles is exchanged; sometimes, administrational issues are clarified, such as making appointments.

This communication is strongly characterized by medical confidentiality, trust, and privacy. Data is expected to be safely stored in the patient record, inaccessible to others, and even protected by law e.

With the development of Internet technologies, communication and monitoring in healthcare is starting to legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles outsourced to social media. Appointments can be made online, health information and even examination results can be distributed by e-mail.

However, this communication via the Internet is conflicted with a couple of ethical issues since technologies impact data privacy and security. Guidelines with respect to patient-doctor communications mainly address email communication [ 3738 ], and information exchange through websites, and concern confidentiality, legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles, unauthorized access to computers, informed consent, or privacy risks.

The patient-doctor relationship may suffer from two main situations. To address this issue, the American Medical Association AMA [ 39 ] recommends when using the Legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles for social networking, physicians legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles use privacy settings to safeguard personal information and content or, even better, keep private and professional sectors separately.

However, they should realize privacy settings are not absolute and once on the internet, content is likely to be there permanently. It is important for physicians and other healthcare professionals to familiarize themselves with the privacy provisions for different social-media applications and adjust the settings to ensure the content is clearly protected.

On the other hand, physicians have access to online patient information that may otherwise not be available in the healthcare setting e. Such information about a patient received from online sources may be helpful in certain healthcare settings, but physicians need to be sensitive to the source and the way the information was displayed publicly.

They should use their clinical judgment in determining whether and how to reveal such information during the treatment of patients. Digitally tracking the personal behaviors of patients, such as determining whether they have indeed quit smoking or are maintaining a healthy diet, may threaten the trust needed for a strong patient-physician relationship and have an influence on their treatment of the patient [ legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles ].

In summary, physicians must carefully maintain professional relationships and confidentiality in online settings. Emails and other electronic means of communication may supplement, but not replace, face-to-face encounters. The problem results from the fact the professional boundaries of interactions are less clear. Physicians may share personal, but also professional content online. Maintaining professional trust in a patient-physician relationship requires physicians to consistently apply ethical principles for preserving the relationship, confidentiality, privacy, and respect for individuals in online settings and mutual communications [ 40 ].

Online interactions with patients may pose challenges because of the ambiguity associated with written language without the context of body language or lack of awareness of the potential abuses of social-media data [ 5 ].

The AMA [ 39 legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles also claims physicians should be aware of the standards of patient privacy and confidentiality that need to be maintained, and must refrain from posting identifiable patient information online.

Another issue that influences the patient-doctor relationship is the opportunity for patients to seek answers to their healthcare questions through social media.

 

Ethical and Legal Issues

 

legal and ethical issues in healthcare articles

 

This article will examine some of the ethical and legal issues correctional nurses must address in their practice. Ethical Concerns For the nurse in a traditional medical setting, ethical decisions occur occasionally and at times the nurse may face ethical dilemmas. In contrast, the correctional nurse may face ethical situations daily. Browse Legal Issues in Medicine articles from the New England Journal of Medicine. The author discusses the legal and ethical issues raised by the Supreme Court decision in. There is a vast range of ethical issues in healthcare that may arise in the field of healthcare today. A hospital's ethical committee has the responsibility to make sure that all of its practitioners are aware of the principals of ethical decision making.